REVIEW ARTICLE

The interaction of neuroimmunology, neuromodulator, and neurotransmitter with nociceptor and MAPK signaling

Dewa Ayu Mas Shintya Dewi , Made Wiryana

Dewa Ayu Mas Shintya Dewi
Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Management, and Intensive Care Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Sanglah General Hospital, Denpasar-Bali, Indonesia. Email: drshintyadewi.span@gmail.com

Made Wiryana
Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Management, and Intensive Care Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Sanglah General Hospital, Denpasar-Bali, Indonesia
Online First: April 28, 2019 | Cite this Article
Dewi, D., Wiryana, M. 2019. The interaction of neuroimmunology, neuromodulator, and neurotransmitter with nociceptor and MAPK signaling. Bali Journal of Anesthesiology 3(1): 44-49. DOI:10.15562/bjoa.v3i1.134


ABSTRACT

Physiological pain is a protection mechanism against tissue damage or potential tissue damage. Inflammation pain is followed by tissue damage due to temperature, mechanical and chemical stimuli which increase crosstalk between neuron nociceptor, immune system, neuromodulator and neurotransmitter, and MAPK (Mitogen Activating Protein Kinase) signal. Initially, immune cell is produced at the primary afferent nerve endings and spinal cord, modulate thermal sensitivity and mechanic through MAPK signaling, then neuromodulator and neurotransmitter at the afferent nerve endings will regulate the innate immune response, adaptive and vascular

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